Microlearning Module One

Future Directions in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Novel Treatment Pathways, Evolving Treatment Paradigms, Addressing Differences in SDoH 


Nicholas Kolaitis, MD, MAS


Assistant Professor

Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Sleep Medicine

University of California at San Francisco

San Francisco, CA

Sandhya Murthy, MD


Associate Professor

Department of Medicine,

Advanced Heart Failure and Transplantation

Albert Einstein College of Medicine

Director, Pulmonary Hypertension Center Co-Director, Heart Failure Center in Nyack Hospital

Bronx, NY

Program Overview

Despite a multitude of treatment options targeting 3 well-characterized pathologic pathways in PAH, this progressive, life-threatening condition continues to have an overall poor prognosis, with 3-year mortality up to 55% in high-risk patients. Diagnostic delay continues to be a barrier to timely treatment initiation. Racial and ethnic disparities, as well as social determinants of health, may play a role in diagnostic delay. HCPs must be equipped with the knowledge and tools to recognize and address the potential contributors to diagnostic delay. The diagnostic interval may be shortened through improved screening of PAH patients with known risk factors, earlier referrals for specialists and earlier diagnostic testing, including TTE, and improved EMR documentation. A number of novel therapeutic agents, including those targeting previously unaddressed pathways, are being tested in PAH. HCPs must be made aware of those agents in late-stage clinical trials which may have a future in the treatment landscape as synergistic, relatively convenient options that may help optimize patient outcomes, particularly those experiencing negative SDoH.

Target Audience

The educational design of this activity addresses the needs of healthcare professionals who provide care for patients with PAH including cardiologists, pulmonologists, critical care physicians, and other NPs and PAs involved in the treatment of patients with PAH.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of activity one, the participant should be able to:

Discuss the potential impacts of racial and ethnic disparities and SDoH on outcomes in PAH


Physician Accreditation Statement

This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of Global Education Group (Global) and Iridium. Global is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Physician Credit Designation

Global Education Group designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Instructions to Receive Credit

In order to receive credit for this activity, the participant must
  • Read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures Complete the pretest
  • View the enduring material
  • Complete the posttest with a score of 70% or higher

A statement of credit will be issued within four weeks of receipt of a completed activity evaluation form.

System Requirements

1.4 GHz Intel Pentium 4 or faster processor (or equivalent)
Windows 10, 8.1 (32-bit/64-bit), Windows 7 (32-bit/64-bit)
512 MB of RAM (1 GB recommended)
Microsoft Internet Explorer 11 or later, Windows Edge browser, Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome
For HTML Client – Google Chrome (v70.0 & above), Mozilla Firefox (v65.0 & above), and Edge (v42.0 & above)

1.83 GHz Intel Core Duo or faster processor
512 MB of RAM (1 GB recommended)
MAC OS X 10.12, 10.13 and 10.14
Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, Google Chrome
For HTML Client – Google Chrome (v70.0 & above), Apple Safari (v12.0 & above), and Mozilla Firefox (v65.0 & above)

Fee Information and Refund/Cancellation Policy

There is no fee for this educational activity.

Term Offering

This activity was released on 10/31/2023and is valid for one year. Requests for credit must be made no later than 10/31/2024. 

Contact Information

For information about the accreditation of this program, please contact Global at 303-395-1782 or cme@globaleducationgroup.com


Disclosures of Relevant Financial Relationships

Global Education Group (Global) adheres to the policies and guidelines, including the Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited CE, set forth to providers by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and all other professional organizations, as applicable, stating those activities where continuing education credits are awarded must be balanced, independent, objective, and scientifically rigorous. All persons in a position to control the content of an accredited continuing education program provided by Global are required to disclose all financial relationships with any ineligible company within the past 24 months to Global. All financial relationships reported are identified as relevant and mitigated by Global in accordance with the Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited CE in advance of delivery of the activity to learners. The content of this activity was vetted by Global to assure objectivity and that the activity is free of commercial bias.

All relevant financial relationships have been mitigated.

The faculty have the following relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies:
Nicholas Kolaitis, MD, MAS
Consulting Fee (e.g., Advisory Board): Accleron, Bayer, Liquidia, Janssen, United Therapeutics

Sandhya Murthy, MD has no relevant financial relationships to disclose. 

The following planners and managers involved in the development of this activity have no relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose.

The planners and managers at Global Education Group have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Iridium staff and others involved with the planning, development, and review of the content for this activity have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. Global and Iridium do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of any organization associated with this activity. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of patient conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.
This educational activity is supported by independent educational grants from Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC.

Credit Amount: 0.25
Credit Type: AMA
Release: 10/31/2023
Expiration: 10/31/2024

This activity is jointly provided by Global Education Group and Iridium Continuing Education.